Usually, one parent (or a grandparent) should take the initiative. With a custodial Roth IRA, you can help your child start saving for retirement as soon as they start earning income. Because Roth IRA contributions are made with after-tax money and can be withdrawn at any time, these accounts are a great option for your child to be financially successful in the long term. The limit for opening a Roth IRA is not based on age, but on income.
A 10-year-old child can have a Roth IRA if they earned income from a job or other self-employment. Opening a Roth IRA for children involves opening a Roth IRA with custody in your name. You can use the services highlighted above to open a Roth IRA account for a minor. A child, nor any parent, guardian, or loved one can contribute to a Roth IRA for children if the account owner has no earned income.
The child's income serves as a limiting factor for making contributions to a Roth IRA or a traditional IRA. You'll never have to withdraw money from a Roth IRA because they're not subject to the required minimum distributions (RMDs). However, when you retire, you can start withdrawing money without any penalty as soon as you turn 59 and a half years old. The IRS states that you need money paid by an employer or through self-employment to have enough earned income to contribute to an IRA.
A custodial IRA is an individual retirement account that a custodian (usually a parent) has for a child with earned income. Once the custodial IRA is opened, the custodian manages all the assets until the child turns 18 (or 21 in some states). All of the funds in the account belong to the child, allowing them to start saving money right from the start. In addition to taking advantage of the benefits of combined growth, your child may be able to use the funds for future expenses, such as college tuition or even to buy a first home.
You can open a Roth IRA with custody or a traditional IRA with custody, and the appropriate account rules and benefits will apply. If the custodial IRA is a Roth IRA, the account owner can withdraw funds without penalty, unlike traditional IRAs. The same contribution and distribution rules that apply to traditional and Roth IRAs also apply to custodial IRAs. Roth IRA providers usually require an adult to open and manage a Roth IRA with custody on behalf of a child.
The main difference between a custodial Roth IRA and a standard Roth IRA is that, with a custodial account, the adult controls the account and makes investment decisions on behalf of the child. If you're familiar with how Roth IRAs work, then you already understand the basic rules of Roth IRAs with custody. However, when your child reaches the legal age of majority in your state (usually 18 or 2 years old), your Roth IRA with custody will need to be converted into a regular Roth IRA in your name.